The History of Salafiyyat
It is the Islaamic duty of every individual to search for the true Deen. During this search one will come across different sects all inviting him under the banner of Islaam to adopt their way. However, the instruction of Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) is very clear and that is to hold firmly on to his way and the way of his illustrious Sahaaba(Radiyallahu Anhum).
عن عبد الله بن عمرو قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ليأتين على أمتي ما أتى على بني إسرائيل حذو النعل بالنعل حتى إن كان منهم من أتى أمه علانية لكان في أمتي من يصنع ذلك وإن بني إسرائيل تفرقت على ثنتين وسبعين ملة وتفترق أمتي على ثلاث وسبعين ملة كلهم في النار إلا ملة واحدة قالوا ومن هي يا رسول الله قال ما أنا عليه وأصحابي
It is reported from Abdullah bin Amr (Radiyallahu Anhu) that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: “My ummat will be faced with similar conditions which prevailed upon the Bani Israeel just as a pair of shoes, one foot is identical to the other to such an extent that if there was a situation in the Bani Israeel where a person committed incest with his mother openly, there will be someone in my ummat who will perpetrate such a crime. Just as the Bani Israeel where divided into seventy two sects, my ummat also will be divided into seventy three sects. All will be destined for Jahannam except one. The Saahaba-e-kiraam (Radiyallahu Anhum) asked: “Which group will be saved from the fire of Jahannam?” Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) answered: “Those who tread upon my way and the way of my Sahaba (Radiyallahu Anhum). (Tirmizi Hadith No: 2641)
However, one is now faced with a dilemma since every group claims to be on the way of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) and the Sahaba (Radiyallahu Anhum). Hence, when one studies the Ahaadith, he will find that Nabi(Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) clearly identified his Mubarak way in the following words:
عن أبى هريرة رضى الله عنه قال قال رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم: إنى قد خلفت فيكم ما لن تضلوا بعدهما ما أخذتم بهما أو عملتم بهما كتاب الله وسنتى ولن تفرقا حتى يردا على الحوض.
It is reported from Abu Huraira (Radiyallahu Anhu) that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: “I have left two sources of guidance for you to adopt. You will never be misguided as long as you hold fast onto these two. The first is the book of Allah and the second is my Sunnat. These two are inseparable and will meet me at the Hauwd-e-Kawthar. (Assunanul Kubra – Bayhaqi 10/114 – Hadith No. 20834)
When we examine the lives of the four Imaams, the outstanding feature which we notice is that they strictly adhered to the Mubarak Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) in every facet of their lives. They could be aptly described with the following words: “They were a personification of the Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) in every walk of life in entirety.” If per chance one has to come across any situation where their mazaahib apparently contradict certain Ahaadith, he will certainly find sufficient substantiation through other Ahaadith, coupled with accurate reconciliations between the Ahaadith not seemingly practised. Their approach to the Qur’an andHadith in deducing masaail was one governed strictly by principles of Deen. It was certainly not an approach of personal opinion nor an approach of pick and choose as is witnessed in today’s times. Hence, one can safely reach the conclusion that these four A’imma (whose mazaahib stood the test of time for approximately thirteen centuries) are worthy of emulation in guiding us to Allah and His Rasul (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam).
Those opting out of the four mazaahib and wishing to embrace the latest mazhab of Salafiyyat which is a mixture and assortment of the four mazaahib added to the concept of “rationalising Deen to fit the contemporary times” should consider the inception and the origin of this new mazhab.
The mazhab of Salafiyyat was foundered by a person born in India in the year “1206 A.H.” by the name of: Abdul Haq bin Fadhlillah Al-Usmaani An-newteeni Al-Banarasi.
Abdul-Haq did not subscribe to any mazhab rather he referred directly to the text of Quraan and Hadith and came to conclusions using his own discretion. This resulted in many debates and discussions between him and the Hanafi Ulama on the topic of Taqleed.
Abdul Haq joined the caravan of Sayed Ahmed Shaheed Saheb (RA)
Abdul Haq joined the caravan of the great saint of the time Sayyed Ahmed Shaheed (Rahmatullahi Alayh) during the journey of Haj. On account of his misconduct as well as his endeavour to spread discord amongst the ummah, he was expelled from the caravan of Sayyed Ahmed Shaheed (Rahmatullahi Alayh).
In Nuzhatul Khawaatir 7/266 it is stated:
After Haj, Abdul Haq was arrested on account of his disrespectful comments against the four Imaams.
In Madina Munawwarah he began voicing his opinion regarding some masaail in which the four Imaams differed. In doing so, he spoke against the Hanafies and Shafies calling them “misled” and “astray”. Shaikh Muhammad Saeed Aslami Madraasi (Rahmatullahi Alayh) reported this to the Qaazi. When Abdul-Haq heard of this, he slipped out of Madeenah Munawwarah and went to Jareedah.
Moulana Abdul-Khaliq Dehlawi (student of Shah Abdul-Qadir and father-in-law of Mia Nazeer Husein) writes:
“The founder of this new sect is Abdul-Haq Banarisi who resided for a little while in Banaaras. On account of his misconduct Ameerul-Mu’mineen Sayed Ahmed (Rahmatullahi Alayh) expelled him from his group (of Mujahideen). If Ameerul Mu’mineen was present today, he would have meted out the same treatment to the corrupt and misleadingghair muqallids of this new sect. (Tambeehul Ghaafileen, Atharul Hadith Vol.2 Pg.369)
In the very same kitaab (Tambeehul Ghafileen) it states: “the Ulama of the Haramain had passed the fatwa of killing him. But somehow he managed to get away. Under the pretext of being with Ameerul Mu’mineen, he gradually introduced his corrupt beliefs to the masses. (Ghair Muqallidiyat pg.10)
Qari Abdur Rahman Panipatti (Rahmatullahi Alayh) (student of Shah Ishaq Rahmatullahi Alayh) writes in his kitab Kashful Hijaab:
“Abdul-Haq had removed thousands of people from deen, on the pretext of practising on the Hadith.”
In front of me Abdul-Haq mentioned:
Aaisha has become murtad on account of her fighting with Hazrat Ali (Radiyallahu Anhum). If she died without repenting, she died as a kaafir.’ May Allah Ta’ala save us. Ameen
He also mentioned: The Sahaabah knew five Hadith whereas I have learnt all the Ahaadith. My knowledge exceeds that of Sahabah.
Qari Abdurrahman writes further:
“It was not long after that, that Abdul Haq went to the Shia Aalim Ghulsahn Ali and said: “I am actually a Shia (from before). It is only now that I reveal my identity; otherwise, under the guise of “practising Hadith” I had caused that amount of damage which even Abdullah bin Saba (the founder of shiaism) could not achieve. I have removed thousands from their faith and religion. Now it is very easy for them to embrace Shism.”
(Kashful Hadith Page 21) (Ghairmuqallidiyat 13-14)
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