In regard to a believer’s relationship with non-Muslim rulers, Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thaanwi (rahimahullah) once mentioned the following:
Having love for the non-Muslim rulers and befriending them is an internal fitnah (i.e. a fitnah that will harm one’s deen, as one will have to make compromises in one’s deen in order to keep them happy), and incurring their anger is an external fitnah (i.e. a fitnah that will harm one’s dunya).
Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) has taught us to seek Allah Ta‘ala’s protection from both these types of fitnahs (i.e. internal and external fitnahs). Hence, the Hadith mentions the following dua that we should make:
اَللّٰهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْفِتَنِ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ
O Allah! I seek Your protection from all fitnahs – those that are apparent (i.e. external) and those that are hidden (i.e. internal).
(Malfoozaat Hakeemul Ummat 24/208)