The History of the Taqleed of the Four Imaams

A common question posed by many people is: “If the Ahaadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) are a commentary of the Noble Qur’an, then what is the need for making Taqleed of an Imaam?”

In order to understand the answer to this question, a brief discussion of the history of the Mazaahib (schools of thought) is necessary.

It is the divine system of Allah Ta’ala that he provided means for the fulfilment of every need of man. Furthermore, in proportion to the need, adequate means have been provided for its fulfilment. Consider the need for water and air. Besides raining down water from the skies, Allah Ta’ala made it possible to acquire water from many sources with relative ease. As for air, since man requires air every second, it has been provided free everywhere. All one needs to do is breathe. Thus Allah Ta’ala has provided for all the physical needs of man.

More important than every physical need is the spiritual need of man. He needs to recognise his creator and worship him. This is the purpose of his existence on earth. Hence Allah Ta’ala instituted divine measures to fulfil this greatest need of every human being.

Allah Ta’ala declares in the glorious Qur’an:

Ayah_15_9Certainly We are the ones who revealed the Qur’an and surely we have taken the responsibility of safe guarding it. (Surah Hijr 15/9)

In this verse Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala explicitly and emphatically declares that He himself has taken the responsibility of protecting the Qur’an. For the enactment of this divine responsibility, of protecting the greatest book “Al-Qur’an”, Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala utilized the greatest of His creation after the Ambiyaa (Alayhimus Salam), who were none other than the auspicious Sahabah (Radiyallahu Anhum).

Then came the time for the compilation and preservation of the commentary of the Qur’an (i.e. the Ahaadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam)). For this mammoth task Allah Ta’ala utilized the Sahabah (Radiyallahu Anhum) as well as the Taabi’een and the Tabe-Tabi’een (Rahmatullahi Alaihim).

Thereafter the need arose for the laws of the Qur’an and Hadith. Systemizing the laws of Shari’ah required discerning and differentiating between the previous abrogated laws and the latter laws which replaced them, deciphering between the authentic and unauthentic narrations, categorizing the status of injunctions and prohibitions (Farz, Wajib, Sunnat, Mustahab, Mubaah, Haraam, Makroo-e-Tahrimi, Makrooh-e-Tanzihi, Kilaaf-e-Awlaa) and finally formulating principles in the light of Qur’an and Hadith which govern the deduction of non-textual situations. All of the above needed to be accomplished in order to correctly practice upon each law of Shari’ah in the manner it was revealed by Allah Ta’ala upon Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).

The accomplishment of such a tremendous task was only possible by a selected class of Allah’s servants, whose phenomenal expertise and unparalleled proficiency cover every science of Deen. This class of people are classified in the terminology of the jurists as Mujtahideen. Continue reading The History of the Taqleed of the Four Imaams →

Referring to the Qur’an without the Medium of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam)

Amongst the many duties of prophet-hood assigned to Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam), one of his duties was to verbally explain as well as physically demonstrate to the ummah the details and particulars of the shar’ee laws contained in the Noble Quran. Allah Ta’ala says:

Ayah_16_44And We have sent down the Qur’an (the reminder) to you so that you explain to the people what has been revealed for them, and so that they reflect. (Surah Nahl 16/44)

For example the Noble Qur’an declares:

Ayah_2_43Establish Salaah (Surah Baqara 2/43)

If one has to study the Quran in depth he will not find any details mentioned of the five faraaidh; viz. Fajr, Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Esha nor will he find the exact number of the rakaats for each Salaah. Other related aspects such as the sunan, wajibaat, faraidh, or the factors which invalidate or decrease the spirit of the Salaat are also not mentioned. One will be compelled to refer to the Sunnah [1] for these details since it is in reality a commentary of the Quran. Similar is the case of Zakaat, Saum, Haj and the remainder injunctions of shariah. Hence we understand that following the Ahadeeth of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) is akin to obeying Allah Ta’ala, as mentioned in the Ayah:

Ayah_4_80He who obeys the Rasool (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) obeys Allah Ta’ala. (Surah Nisa’ 4/80)

Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) himself directed our attention to this point in the following Hadith:

Every_ummati

It is reported from Abu Hurairah (Radiyallahu Anhu) that Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: “My entire ummat will gain entry into paradise except those who reject.” Sahaba enquired: “And who are those who reject (O Nabi of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam)).” Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) replied: “Those who follow my Sunnah (way) will surely enter paradise and those who disobey me are the rejectors.” (Bukhari 2/1081)

This statement of Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) clearly establishes the fact that one cannot gain salvation without the medium of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). Continue reading Referring to the Qur’an without the Medium of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) →

The Qur’an

The primary source of guidance revealed to mankind from Allah Ta’ala is the Qur’an. The Noble Qur’an in its entirety is a means of guidance for mankind at large. It (Noble Qur’an) comprises of incidents and events of the past nations, scenes of the hereafter, admonishments for the evil-doers and glad-tidings for the pious, etc. Similarly it also comprises of laws and injunctions of Shariah.

With regard to the verses of the Qur’an that explain stories and events of the past nations, scenes of the hereafter, etc., Allah Ta’ala declares:

Ayah_54_40And We have indeed made the Qur’an easy to understand and seek advice, then is there anyone to seek advice? (Surah Qamar 54/40)

As far as these verses are concerned (i.e. stories and events of the past nations), they are easily comprehendible to any person conversant in the Arabic language or even those who refer to the translations of the Holy Qur’an. As for those verses of the Qur’an which discuss shari’ee laws and injunctions, let alone those who are well conversant in the Arabic language, even the Sahabah (Radiyallahu Anhum) were unable to fathom the meanings of such verses or unravel their hidden secrets without the intermediary of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam).

The Object of man’s existence

The Object of man’s existence on earth is to recognize, worship and serve his creator, Allah Ta’ala. Everything else is secondary.

Worship of Allah Ta’ala is not restricted to the five pillars (Imaan, Salaah, Zakaah, Fasting and Haj). Instead it encompasses every facet of life from eating to answering the call of nature, from business to marriage and from being the head of the household to being the leader of the state.

In order to teach man how to worship Allah Ta’ala in every aspect of life, by performing every action in a manner that is pleasing to him, Allah Ta’ala sent messengers and revealed his books of guidance. The last and final messenger was Sayyidana Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and the last book that was revealed upon him was the Qur’an. Gaining salvation in this world and the next is now only possible by following the Qur’an and the noble Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).

Two Main Reasons for Forgiveness

Generally people are forgiven due to one of two reasons:

  1. Offering help and assistance to those in distress.
  2. Showing respect to the salient features or symbols of Deen or anything related to Deen.

It is reported, when the wife of Haroon Ar-Rasheed, Bibi Zubaida (Rahmatullahi Alayhima) learnt of the hardships and difficulties the people of Makkah as well as those coming for Hajj and Umrah were undergoing due to insufficient water provisions and sanitation. She immediately instructed that a huge canal be constructed covering the vase distance between Iraq and Makkah, thus providing water for the creation. This canal remained the main source of water for approximately one thousand years. We can well imagine the multitudes of people that drank from the canal of Zubaida.

After her demise, she was seen in a dream and questioned as to how it faired with her in the grave. She replied: “Al-Hamdulillah, Allah Ta’ala has forgiven me.” She was then asked whether the reason for her forgiveness was the canal she constructed. She replied: “Though I was instrumental in the construction of the canal. However, the public funds were used for accomplishing this great task.” She then related that once while I was seated for meals and about to place the morsel of food in my mouth when the Muazzin called out the Azaan. I realised that the front part of my hair was slightly revealed. So I immediately placed the morsel of food on the plate and out of respect for the Azaan covered my hair. It was on account of this action that Allah Ta’ala forgave me.

Allah Ta’ala says:

Ayah_22_32

“Those who show respect to the symbols of Allah Ta’ala, this is indeed a sign of the piety of the hearts. (Surah Hajj 22/32)